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Mega-events are very significant to the host countries, and the immediate community at large (Blair, 2005: 562). They have both positive and negative effects in the social, cultural, political and economic aspects. In the communal aspect, these events have both negative and positive impacts. The positive impacts to the community, factors that lead to the success of these events, and the factors leading to failure of the events are as discussed in detail in the ensuing essay. This discussion is done with a review of the relevant theory and explicit examples where appropriate.      

Evaluation of the extent to which impacts are positive on the community

The positive effects of these mega events on the immediate community are several. The first positive impact is that the events facilitate social, strong ties among the members of the community (Florek et al., 2008: 176). When people attend, they meet with their friends, and other people they know. When they meet, they strengthen their ties through informal talks as opposed to their usual formal talks when they meet during normal days (Blair, 2005: 562). It is also an avenue for learning new skills and having experience with some of the creative works of others. This way, they get to strengthen their ties through appreciating creative works of their friends and those whom they meet at the event.

The second positive impact is that the events provide an avenue of boosting the overall image of the host country or city. This way, such countries or cities become target for the tourists. When more tourists come, they bring more revenue to the country or the city. This revenue is used by the responsible authority to improve the lives of the immediate community members. A good example of such a boost in tourism was registered in Lillehammer. Tourism in this area soared by 43% within a four-year period succeeding the Winter Olympics of 1994 (Florek et al., 2008: 179).   

The third positive impact is that such events provide a suitable platform for revitalizing the local community (Giulianotti, 2011: 3293). When the local community members make their presence to such events, they become entertained. In normal situations, enjoying such entertainment is very costly. Also, participating in entertaining events in normal situations is very hard because of the limitation of time. Since such events call for public holidays, they provide an avenue for the local community members to revitalize themselves fully (Giulianotti, 2011: 3298).The fourth positive impact is that the events are an avenue for learning new things and skills (Florek et al., 2008: 184). During these events, community members can explore in depth into the available creativity from other people either from the immediate community members or from other in attendance members. They are thus able to benefit from these new skills and creativity. 

The fifth positive impact on the community is the creation of employment. During these events, community members benefit a lot from the influx people. The benefiting members range from small scale business owners to mega business owners. From expensive hotels, cheap hotels, transport industry to small canteens and stalls serving little things such as candies, they all benefit (Blair, 2005: 565). Since most of these businesses are owned by the local community members, they stand a better chance of reaping the maximum good of the mega events. A good example of such a situation was when Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester in the year 2002. Its expenditure amounted to US$850 million and in turn, more than 16,000 jobs were created. Some of these jobs lasted for some few months while others lasted for more than ten years. In Sydney, the event registered over US$3 billion in business circulation of the region.  

The sixth positive impact on the community is the improvement of infrastructure by the government. Usually, the government aims at creating an appealing and lasting image of the host places of such events. As such, the infrastructure leading to the host places is highly improved to facilitate the smooth flow of the event. The people who benefit most from these improved infrastructures are always the immediate community members (Blair, 2005: 567). They become able to transact their daily businesses with ease facilitated by the infrastructure. Examples of such infrastructure include; buildings, power supplies, transport, and communications. They all facilitate the functioning of these host areas and the community activities in the long run. A good example of improvement of infrastructure is in the Olympic Games record host: Athens. In this city, the government improved infrastructure including new roads, suburban trains and metro restructuring the ancient city to a new one. 

The seventh positive impact of the mega events on the community is that they instigate national pride and harmony. The prestige and competitive spirit affiliated with hosting a mega event leaves a legacy of national pride and harmony.  Done in the right way, the host country or community breaks the existing racial, gender and ethnic discriminations that are eminent. A good example of where such an occurrence took place is during the Rugby World Cup that took place in South Africa in 1995. At the time, the country was torn apart along ethnic lines. This mega event helped in addressing the issue of discrimination. 

Factors That Lead To Success of Mega Events

The success of these mega events in their host place solely depends on several factors. The first factor is the community involvement level. The more the community is involved, the higher the success of the event. Such events such as the Notting Hill Carnival require a lot of community involvement. With the lack of adequate involvement, the security of such an event is always at stake. This assertion is true especially because the event is carried out in the open ground, which is an easy target of gangs’ intrusion. 

The second factor that contributes to the success of these mega events is the immense support from the government. The authority is always vital in providing enough security personnel to monitor the surroundings of the host ground. Without the support of the authority, these events can always be a failure. This assertion is true because such places are always a possible target for malicious gangs and terrorists. If people are not assured of their security, they cannot attend such events. 

The third factor is the presence of developed competitive skills (Kearney, 2005: 10). Competitive performance of the host country is vital for triumphant mega-events. When the host country encourages development of prowess in the events such as sports, the success of such events is guaranteed. A good example of such a case was when Australia got a getting up call for the period of the 1976. This is the year when they held Montreal Olympics, and their athletes won just four bronze and one silver medal (Ali-Knight, 2009: 09). They had to offer development skills to catalyze the situation. Scholarships for 700 athletes were offered every year. This situation worked because the country won 13 bronze, 11 silver, and seven gold medals. The improvement situation improved led to success of the future events (Ali-Knight, 2009: 09).

The fourth factor that leads to the success of the mega events is the improvement of brand image and commercial worth (Mccartney, 2005: 113). The government increase of the commercial worth and brand image of such events lures the public into supporting such events. They always feel pride when associating with the success of the event. This way, they work hard towards the success of these events. 

The fourth factor that contributes to the success of these events is the use of private investment and sponsorship (Cairns, 2004: 275). If private individuals and firms investments in these events, popularity to the public is gained. This popularity contributes to the acceptance by the immediate community members which in turn translates to success. 

The fifth factor that contributes to the success of the mega events is good management of stakeholders (Jane, 2012: 03).A program that has a legacy becomes successful when it receives some buy-ins from all the parties with an interest. These parties range from grass root organizers of the community, high-ranking officials of the government, corporate CEOs and legislators of small towns (Ali-Knight, 2009: 10). When these leaders are convinced of the vitality of building a legacy, the success of events will be guaranteed. A good example of such a situation is the Beijing mega event held on 2008 where all officials bought-in to the idea and facilitated the creation of a law safeguarding the environment (Jane, 2012: 05).

The sixth factor that contributes to the success of such mega-events is the presence of robust public awareness, media communications, public relations and advocacy programs (Coaffee et al., 2011: 3315). With the creation of awareness of the intended purpose of the event to the public, the success of the event is always guaranteed. This awareness is ensured through media communications, good public relations and use of appropriate advocacy programs. 

The seventh factor contributing to the success of these mega events is ensuring that there is enough security before, during and after such events (Bresler, 2011: 30). With adequate security, people will be encouraged to grace the events without fear. The security does not only require the apportionment of enough security personnel. The activity calls for collaboration of all the stakeholders as the immediate community members as well (Coaffee et al., 2011: 3317). The involvement of community members ensures that the security personnel are kept informed of any possible threat. Similarly, they can practice community policing among themselves to guarantee security. 

Factors Contributing to Failure of These Events

Such events as have been experienced in some countries when holding major events, such as the Notting Hill Carnival, may end up failing. This failure is caused by a number of factors as will be discussed below. The first factor for failure is inadequate community involvement (Cairns, 2004: 275). When the community is not adequately involved in the activities of these events, such events end up failing. The community members who feel that they were not adequately involved in the planning of such events may be the ones causing this failure (Coaffee et al., 2011: 3311). They may intrude and cause chaos as was experienced this year in Notting Hill Carnival. In this event, gangs invaded the grounds and caused chaos injuring many attendants through stubbing and assaulting. Police officers were not spared either; they were injured too. This situation is very common in events that are held in open grounds that are particularly congested and cannot restrict people from entering. 

The second factor for failure is inadequate private investment and sponsorship (Ali-Knight, 2009: 11). When the private investment in terms of money and opinion is at minimum, these events are always at the verge of failing. Such private organizations include NGOs and civil groups. Inadequate involvement of civil groups, for example, may lead to a negative construction by the public. This situation is true because the civil groups as private organizations are very influential on the part of the public. If such organizations agitate a negative public opinion, such an event is doomed for failure. 

The third factor that contributes to the failure of such events is inadequate public consultations (Kearney, 2005: 10). The opinion held by the public on the suitability of such events is very vital for its success. When the public feels that they were not consulted on their opinion, and then the entailments of the events negate the expectations of the public, the event will experience failure.  

The fourth factor contributing to the failure of mega events is inadequate public awareness (Bresler, 2011: 33). Making the public aware of the event and its importance to their economic and social life is crucial. When they understand the importance, they can embrace the event whole-heartedly. Similarly, when there is no or inadequate public awareness, the community will not appreciate the mega event. This awareness is made through all the available media that is used by the intended audience. Failure to do this translates to failure in such events. 

The fifth factor for failure is the presence of inadequate security (Cairns, 2004: 275). When the security of such events is threatened, they end up failing miserably. Similarly, when the ground of an event becomes unsafe, people will be unwilling to feature in events of the kind in the future. For example, with Notting Hill Carnival chaos and few people will attend a future event, if the security will not be guaranteed (Mccartney, 2005: 118). Lack of the presence of people in such events translates to a failed mission. 

The sixth factor that contributes to failure is inadequate branding, merchandizing, and marketing (Ali-Knight, 2009: 12). These mega events require that they are branded adequately and in a stunning manner to exacerbate the public quest to cooperate. Similarly, adequate merchandising of the brand should be accompanied by adequate marketing. In short of these three elements, the mega event fails. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are several positive impacts of a mega event on the host community. These events range from a sense of national pride, an avenue for learning, sustainment of strong social ties, an avenue for leisure, employment creation to the image boosting. Similarly, there are a number of factors that contribute to either success or failure of a mega event. Some of these factors are; the level of community involvement, the available public awareness, the level of private investment and sponsorship. Others are the extent of branding, merchandising and marketing, security issues and the level of and the level of communication and advocacy. All these impacts and factors for success and failure are discussed in detail, with the use of explicit examples where appropriate.

Works Cited

Ali-Knight, J. (2009). International perspectives of festivals and events: paradigms of analysis. Oxford, Elsevier Science.

Blair, R. (2005). Book Review: Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. Urban Affairs Review, 40(4), pp.562-564.

Bresler, N. (2011). Tourist considerations in hosting a mega sport event: 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 33(2).

Cairns, G. (2004). Megaprojects: the Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment20041A. Altshuler and D. Luberoff. Megaprojects: the Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment . Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press 2003. 339 pp. Intl Jnl Public Sec Management, 17(3), pp.275-277.

Coaffee, J., Fussey, P. and Moore, C. (2011). Laminated Security for London 2012: Enhancing Security Infrastructures to Defend Mega Sporting Events. Urban Studies, 48(15), pp.3311-3327.

Florek, M., Breitbarth, T. and Conejo, F. (2008). Mega Event = Mega Impact? Travelling Fans’ Experience and Perceptions of the 2006 FIFA World Cup Host Nation. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 13(3), pp.199-219.

Giulianotti, R. (2011). Sport Mega Events, Urban Football Carnivals and Securitised Commodification: The Case of the English Premier League. Urban Studies, 48(15), pp.3293-3310.

Jane Sadd, D. (2012). The Impacts of Mega-Events held at Satellite Venues – Case study of Weymouth & Portland. [online] bournemouth.ac.uk. Available at: http://www.uff.br/esportesociedade/pdf/es1010.pdf [Accessed 11 Dec. 2014].

Kearney, A. (2005). Building a Legacy Sports Mega-Events Should Last a Lifetime. [online] kzndsr.gov.za. Available at: http://www.kzndsr.gov.za/Portals/0/GIS/BuildingaLegacy%5B1%5D.pdf [Accessed 11 Dec. 2014].

Kim, W., Jun, H., Walker, M. and Drane, D. (2014). Evaluating the perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport tourism events: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 48, pp.21-32.

Mccartney, G. (2005). Hosting a recurring mega-event: Visitor raison. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 10(2), pp.113-128.

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