Total Quality Management literature make use of seven tools that are basic to managing human resource. As Ishikawa argues, about 95% of all the problems that companies experience are easily solved using these seven basic tools of management (Bou and Beltrán, 72). These tools are designed for easy application to facilitate a smooth operation. The tools can be critically evaluated on their applicability enumerating their benefits and drawbacks. This is done to assess their suitability in managing the human resource and influencing their behaviors and satisfaction. Below is a detailed essay of the seven tools of management, their advantages and disadvantages, their applicability, conclusions and recommendations on the applicability of these tools.
The first tool is the application of flow charts. Flow charts enumerate the phases in the practice of management that are translated as actions geared towards transforming an input to an output for the proceeding step (Simpson, 379). These steps are substantial in helping to analyze the process, but they are obliged to mirror the real process utilized (Bou and Beltrán, 75). This reflection is in opposition of what the management thinks of it or what they want it to be. The dissimilarities between the real and the envisioned processes provide many concepts, which aid in making enhancements. Measurements on progress are taken at every step to establishing the most eminent reasons of deferrals, these are then highlighted for enhancement (Gallear and Ghobadian, 1046). In creating a flow chart, the process facilitator discovers that the actual process is unique. Frequently, non-value-added phases become evident and eradicating them offers a stress-free method to develop a procedure. When the flow of the procedure is fitting, each step translates to a probable target for improvement. Priorities are established by the use of measurements.
Advantages of Flow Charts
The first advantage of using flow charts is that they provide a better means of communication. Through this communication, the employees get to air their grievances to the management (Gallear and Ghobadian, 1047). They also highlight key concern areas that need immediate action. They easily present pictorial logarithms, denoting the stream of control hence making it understandable. The second advantage is that they provide proper documentation. This is to mean that they provide a manner in which the business logic of problem-solving procedures is documented. This way, when future issues with the employees or the customers arise, they are easily set to the satisfaction of the parties involved (Gallery and Ghobadian, 1048).
Thirdly, they provide effective analysis of the problems in a way that reduces the costs involved, and the time consumed. Fourthly, use of flow charts makes the task of coding easier. The programmer can write corresponding program with ease. These programs are used by the management to easily handle both external and internal customers with ease (Simpson, 377). It thus enhances satisfaction among the employees and the customers as well. The fifth advantage is that flowcharts facilitate debugging of errors in the logic of a sequencer.
Disadvantages of Flowcharts
The first disadvantage of using flowcharts is that it requires a lot of time to prepare, and it is very tedious especially when formulating proper symbols (Simpson, 378). This is particularly evident with the complex problems. The second disadvantage is that a flowchart requires constant programming to fit certain situations. This is a tedious undertaking too by the programmers. The third disadvantage is that there are no principles of relating the details that should be encompassed in a flow chart.
The name was apportioned to the diagrams by the originator, Kaoru Ishikawa (Pradhan, 29). They are as well-known as fishbone charts derived from their appearance. The function of these diagrams is to find the factors that cause defects so as to formulate an improvement action or to detect the factors necessary to bring about the anticipated result (Pradhan, 29). These factors are discerned by people acquainted with the practice involved. To commence with, key factors could be chosen using the analogical “Four m’s” denoting Manpower, machinery, material and method (Simpson, 376). Similarly, the “Four p’s” denoting policies, people, procedures and plant (Simpson, 376). If these factors are very vital, they can be subdivided. These vital factors are usually a prolog to the arithmetical design of experimentations.
Advantages of Ishikawa Diagrams
The first advantage of using these diagrams is that they allow a rational analysis that circumvents overlooking and probable root origins for a need. The second advantage is that this method is lucid to apply and generates an easy-to-understand pictorial demonstration of the causes, the need and classifications of causes (Pradhan, 30). The third advantage is that the use of these diagrams enable the group to focus on the bigger picture pertaining to possible causes or influences on the need or problem. The fourth advantage is that the diagrams illuminate areas of weakness thus facilitating the development of further solutions. This helps in keeping the eminent difficulties at a sustainable level.
Disadvantages of Ishikawa Diagrams
The first disadvantage of Ishikawa Diagrams is that its lucidity can be translated as either a strength or weakness (Simpson, 400). As a weakness, this lucidity may render it difficult to represent the genuine interrelatedness of problems and their causes in some difficult situations.
According to Gallear and Ghobadian (1050), these charts were developed by Alfredo Pareto after noting that a small percentage of people controlled almost all the wealth of a nation. His law has been in application in many other areas other than economics (Gallear and Ghobadian, 1050). In such areas such as in quality managing, its application is in cases where cause of defects is responsible for most of the problems. Separating the significant few from the inconsequential many can be achieved using Pareto chart.
Creating of Pareto charts using stratifications involves the development of a set of different charts for similar data by means of unlike probable causative factors (Pradhan, 31). Issues are rated in relation to their vitality and occurrence by ordering explicit problems in a way that enables problem-solving. A good example of such groupings is; most recurrent complaint, commonly procured preservation aid among others with the aim of assessing which is of priority.
Advantages of Pareto Charts
The first benefit associated with Pareto charts is that it helps in acquiring organizational efficiency with ease (Simpson, 379). When the required changes or the eminent problems are listed, they are arranged in the order of their priority or severity. This facilitates the establishment of the root causes of problems by the employees, and the problems are solved in order of their severity (Pradhan, 32). This prioritized problems solving helps the organization in realizing efficiency.
The second advantage is that it enhances the skills of problem-solving, through helping the manager and the employees to organize problems related to work into solid facts. The third advantage is that Pareto charts improve individuals’ abilities of making decisions. This is achieved through documentation of the procedures and processes requisite in making changes. This documentation enables adequate preparation and enhancements in decision making for imminent changes (Waddock and Bodwell, 37). The fourth advantage is that the use of Pareto diagrams permits for healthier use of inadequate resources.
Disadvantages of Pareto Charts
The first disadvantage of using Pareto charts is that it focuses on the past as opposed to the future. The reliance on the past information can be misleading. A good example is on the change of the cost of raw materials where it may use past fluctuations. These fluctuations may not indicate how recent such data is which might be misleading on the current situation (Waddock and Bodwell, 37).
The second disadvantage is inaccurate problem recording in the severity list. This assertion is true because the owners and managers of organizations are unable to clearly examine the quality and affiliations within each problem. The third disadvantage is the problem of mistaken applications. A good example is when a business owner evaluates his customers on the basis of their quantity of purchase and frequency. It turns out that the most frequent customers and who buy in bulk warrant more time and attention. This leads to a situation where the other customers are neglected. In such a case, the owner stands at a position of losing those customers who are very valuable to the business, despite of their low purchasing power.
According to Pradhan (25), histograms are used to illustrate and examine various data elements for the reason of making decisions. It is regarded as efficient when used to compare arithmetic, survey or questionnaire outcomes. Histograms depict a situation in which the range of measurements is lesser on one side of the central tendency than on the other.
Advantages of Histograms
The first advantage of histograms is that they are easy to come up with and interpret. The second advantage is the high-quality answers that they provide.
Disadvantages of Histograms
One of the major disadvantages is that it is tedious to prepare especially because of the computations involved.
They are graphical in presentation as opposed to statistical means used to examine whether or not there is a correlation between the two parameters (Waddock and Bodwell, 29). It involves the plotting of every point of the data available on the chart. One parameter is denoted as x-axis while the other is denoted as y-axis. If the points related on the chart form a closely packed cloud, then the parameters are closely related. On the other hand, if they form distant cloud, then the parameters have a poor correlation.
Advantages of Scatter Plots
The first advantage of using a scatter plot is that it helps in identifying trends in the data by a correlation that is negative, positive or absence of correlation (Waddock and Bodwell, 36). This helps in solving the eminent problems after identifying the strength of their correlations. The second advantage is that it shows the minimum, outline and maximum of the data set.
Disadvantages of Scatter Plot
The first disadvantage is that data scatter plot is hard to see and comprehend the data due to the lack of visible graph lines (Waddock and Bodwell, 37). The second disadvantage is that the scatter plot is complicated to tell whether the relationship is negative, positive or no relationship.
Implementation of Quality Management Tools
Different management personnel may utilize different techniques in implementing these tools. As proposed by Joseph, the three common characteristics eminent in implementing these tools are; participative management, making use of teams and continuously improving the implementation process (Printz, 4433). To facilitate this, Joseph highlighted six attributes that are vital for success. These attributes are; customer focus, process focus, prevention against inspection, decision making based on facts, and receptiveness of response (Printz, 4434).
Factors for Failure of Implementation
Several factors may come into play and contribute to the failure of successful implementation of these tools. Some of these factors are; inadequate commitment by the management, incapacity to adjust the organizational culture, and inappropriate planning. Additional factors are inadequate training, problems on the structure of the organization such as isolation of individual and or departments, inefficient assessment and inadequate data, inadequate responsiveness to internal and external clients and insufficient empowerment.
There are three top quality prizes namely; Deming Prize, the European Quality Awards, and the Baldrige Award (Printz, 4433). Malcolm Baldrige Award is the second major quality prize that was conceived in 1987 by the congress (Printz, 4433). It set out a national standard for quality, and this is utilized as a guide to management by companies. Those who apply this standard meet seven explicit sets. These sets are client and market focus, leadership, focus on human resource, strategic planning, business outcomes, process management, and information analysis (Printz, 4433). Winners are always requested to share their planned success strategies with others.
In conclusion, there are several quality management tools that are used in the hospitality industry. All these tools have their corresponding advantages as well as disadvantages. The applicability of these tools is done in consideration of several attributes such as customer focus and control focus. Similarly, several factors such as inadequate training and inappropriate planning may contribute to the failure in implementation of these tools.
1. Choosing the best quality management tool to apply in a hospitality industry, one ought to weigh the advantages against the disadvantages of these tools. This weighing is followed by choosing the most appropriate one.
2. To increase the employees’ satisfaction and quality service provision, some issues have to be addressed. These issues are adequate motivation, timely assessments, good working conditions and terms of service, assurance of job security, and involvement in decision making.
3. To ensure successful implementation of Quality Tools, the management ought to hinder to all the attributes that facilitate success in implementation. The attributes are customer focus, process focus, prevention against inspection, decision making based on facts, and receptiveness of response.
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