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Introduction

Feminism is a conglomeration of movements and ideas directed towards describing, establishing and protecting a form of equal political, cultural, social and economic entitlements for women[1]. On the other hand, feminist movements are a chain of operations for changes on women issues such as domestic violence, sexual violence, reproductive rights, sexual harassment, maternity leave, and women’s suffrage[2]. Those who support these feminist movements require immense courage to withstand adversities in several ways. These ways will be discussed in terms of the adversities that the supporter have to counter.

The first way, in which they need courage, is to overcome the adversity of cultural barriers[3]. Historically, women were portrayed as the inferior offspring mankind. They could not be allowed to hold political offices, their learning in formal institutions was greatly limited, and they could not be offered formal jobs[4]. Also, their duties were confined to home chores and taking care of children. To avert these perceptions, the supporters must have a firm stance of courage to overcome the hostility that is eminent against them when they try to avert the situation.

The second way, in which the supporters require courage to overcome adversities, is eminent from the ill treatment they receive[5]. The mistreatment is even to some extent perpetrated by the respective governments, when the supporters attempt to propose recognition of equal entitlements to women as their counterpart. A good example in the United States is the way the supporters were mistreated by the government through the use of police violence to scatter them. In specific, the FBI had a view that the women movements were enemies of American values[6]. Informants, who infiltrated the movements, were paid to create paranoia and eroded trust among the supporters. However, due to the courage and resilience against these adversities, the efforts of these supporters were not diminished. Instead, they tirelessly continued to advocate women rights until they were achieved.

In terms of education, women supporters encountered a lot of adversaries. Previously, women were not allowed to proceed to the highest level of education. Male scholars had even written the negativities of educating women to a higher level of education. One of the negative assertions were that she had a very little brain capacity to withstand the pressure of education. This assertion saw some women scholars such as Mary Wortley, and Marquis de Condorcet encounter a lot of adversary during the late18th century in attempts to recognize education on women[7]. To overcome these adversities, they had to be courageous no matter the magnitude of subjection to adversity. With this courage, the two became the champions of women’s education.

In terms of jobs, women were strictly confined to the homestead duties such as the carrying out of house chores and taking care of children[8]. Their male counterpart strongly discouraged the joining of professional jobs by their female counterparts. The trials by several female pioneers, to sensitize the entire population on the capabilities of a woman in the professional world, was highly criticized. Not until the Second World War that women were partially allowed to hold on professional jobs that were left vacant by men who had gone to war[9]. Some were also allowed to join the army, but every women troop was put under the leadership of a male soldier. However, the women’s role in the war was limited to the interpretation of aerial photography to the target areas. They were not allowed to the battlefields even if they had been trained to use guns. Through the works of courage of several feminist supporters, we nowadays have women in all professions. Nowadays, some hold some very senior positions in government and business institutions. For example, Hillary Clinton held a very senior position in the government as the Secretary of State.

In terms of attempts of legislation reforms by women movement supporters, a lot of adversaries is encountered. For example, during the debate on Civil Rights in 1964, the supporters used various means to have the bill passed[10]. Some of these means were; making public the issue of rape, as well as domestic violence through the media, lobbying the Congress, and creating awareness on people. These supporters upheld courage in their support for Women Movements. In the first move, they pushed for amendments. In the second move, they pushed for the bill itself. These two moves gave women a lawful tool to attain their rights. If it were not for their courage, there would have no significant achievements in their attempts.

In the 1960s followed by 1970s, these women movements drew stimulation from the civil rights’ supporters of 1950s[11]. Most of its members who were from the middle class heightened the quest for rebellion. The sexual revolutions of the year 1960s also played a role in the strengthening the feminism support. These revolutions were caused by the offing and marketing of the pills meant for birth-control. All these activities required that the supporters of feminism be courageous in pushing for change amidst immense resistance and adversaries.

In August of the year 1970, Women lead by the supporters of the feminism held a mega strike that aimed at achieving equality[12]. There were a lot of marches, sit-ins, and protests that portrayed the life positivism on feminism. Immense resistance towards the amendments of the rights led to the failure of these efforts. However, the women supporters did not stop at that. Their courage gave way for a proposal of ratification of the constitution in 1972.

The other way, in which the women supporters require courage to overcome adversities, can be seen during the push for ratification of the Constitution to ensure the amendment of equal rights to all[13]. The supporters pressed for this rectification in 1972 and the Congress passed the amendment in the same year[14]. The amendment advocated equal rights through the provision of the law. Several years after this ratification 35 states out of the needed 38 ratified the law[15]. After that, the courts were at the forefront in promoting sexual equality. In 1973 through the case of Roe vs. Wade, Supreme Court approved the right to abortion in early months of pregnancy[16]. This approval was a noteworthy triumph for the women’s movement. Were it not for the willingness of the feminism supporters to courageously withstand the eminent adversaries, this victory would not have been realized.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the supporters of the women movements require immense courage to withstand the adversities presented against their stands. This assertion is proven in the incidences presented above in the essay. This prove is presented in the form of overcoming the cultural barriers that limited women, the push for women education, to push for civil rights and inclusion in professional jobs.

 

Works Cited

McVay, Lori Ann. 2013. Rural women in leadership: positive factors in leadership development. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI.

Bird, Elizabeth. 2003. ‘Women’s Studies and the Women’s Movement in Britain: Origins and Evolution, 1970 – 2000. Women’s History Review 12 (2): 263-288. doi:10.1080/09612020300200351.

Fuchs Epstein, Cynthia. 2008. ‘The Focus of Feminism: Challenging the Myths about the U.S. Women’s Movement’. Amnis, no. 8. doi:10.4000/amnis.634.

HALL, R E. 2000. ‘From Feminism To Womanism: Purging Racism From The Western Women’s Rights Movement.’. IFE Psychologia 8 (2). doi:10.4314/ifep.v8i2.23581.

Hyman, Colette A. 2002. ‘The Civil Rights Movement, From The Outside And The Inside’. Journal Of Women’s History 14 (3): 168-176. doi:10.1353/jowh.2002.0070.

Miller, Marla R. 2002. ‘Tracking The Women’s Movement Through The Women’s Action Alliance’. Journal Of Women’s History 14 (2): 154-156. doi:10.1353/jowh.2002.0051.

Mueller, Carol McClurg. 2006. ‘The U.S. Women’s Movement In Global Perspective’. Pol Gender 2 (04). doi:10.1017/s1743923x06242132.

‘No Small Courage: A History Of Women In The United States’. 2001. Choice Reviews Online 38 (07): 38-4073-38-4073. doi:10.5860/choice.38-4073.

Roth, Benita. 2004. ‘Thinking About Challenges To Feminist Activism In Extra-Feminist Settings’. Social Movement Studies 3 (2): 147-166. doi:10.1080/1474283042000266100.

Stewart, Andrew. 2012. ‘Wartime Courage: Stories Of Extraordinary Courage By Exceptional Men And Women In World War Two’. Global War Stud 9 (1): 95-97. doi:10.5893/19498489.09.01.11.

Valiente, Celia. 2014. ‘Age And Feminist Activism: The Feminist Protest Within The Catholic Church In Franco’s Spain’. Social Movement Studies, 1-20. doi:10.1080/14742837.2014.947252.

Dziedzic, Nancy G. 2012. Feminism. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

[1] Dziedzic, Nancy G. 2012. Feminism. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

[2] McVay, Lori Ann. 2013. Rural women in leadership: positive factors in leadership development. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI.

[3] Fuchs Epstein, Cynthia. 2008. ‘The Focus of Feminism: Challenging the Myths about the U.S. Women’s Movement’. Amnis, no. 8. doi:10.4000/amnis.634.

[4] Bird, Elizabeth. 2003. ‘Women’s Studies and the Women’s Movement in Britain: Origins and Evolution, 1970 – 2000. Women’s History Review 12 (2): 263.

[5] Ibid. 266

[6] HALL, R E. 2000. ‘From Feminism To Womanism: Purging Racism From The Western Women’s Rights Movement.’. IFE Psychologia 8 (2). doi:10.4314/ifep.v8i2.23581.

[7] ‘No Small Courage: A History Of Women In The United States’. 2001. Choice Reviews Online 38 (07): 38-4073-38-4073. doi:10.5860/choice.38.

[8] Miller, Marla R. 2002. ‘Tracking The Women’s Movement Through The Women’s Action Alliance’. Journal Of Women’s History 14 (2): 154-156. doi:10.1353/jowh.2002.0051.

[9] Stewart, Andrew. 2012. ‘Wartime Courage: Stories Of Extraordinary Courage By Exceptional Men And Women In World War Two’. Global War Stud 9 (1): 95-97. doi:10.5893/19498489.09.01.11.

[10] Miller, Marla R. 2002. ‘Tracking The Women’s Movement Through The Women’s Action Alliance’. Journal Of Women’s History 14 (2): 154-156. doi:10.1353/jowh.2002.0051.

[11] Ibid. 159

[12] Mueller, Carol McClurg. 2006. ‘The U.S. Women’s Movement In Global Perspective’. Pol Gender 2 (04). doi:10.1017/s1743923x06242132.

[13] Hyman, Colette A. 2002. ‘The Civil Rights Movement, From The Outside And The Inside’. Journal Of Women’s History 14 (3): 168-176. doi:10.1353/jowh.2002.0070

[14] Roth, Benita. 2004. ‘Thinking About Challenges To Feminist Activism In Extra-Feminist Settings’. Social Movement Studies 3 (2): 147-166. doi:10.1080/1474283042000266100.

[15] HALL, R E. 2000. ‘From Feminism To Womanism: Purging Racism From The Western Women’s Rights Movement.’. IFE Psychologia 8 (2). doi:10.4314/ifep.v8i2.23581.

[16] Ibid. 37

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